Rule 42 Most Common Breaches Optimist

THIS PAPER IS INTENDED AS A GUIDE TO JUDGES AND SAILORS

 

PRINCIPLE:
The judges will give sailors the benefit of the doubt, however, when they are sure a sailor is breaking rule 42 they must act to protect the sailors that are complying with the rule.

CLASS RULES AFFECTING RULE 42: NONE

Class Specific Techniques and Breaches:

Clear breaches of Rule 42 in Optimist class are easy to notice but the problem is that nowadays sailors and their coaches develop the techniques to explore the limits of the rule. As a result judges may have to spend more time observing a boat in the yellow light area before deciding whether to penalize.

 

STARTS

1. Sculling

This can be both forceful and gentle as Optimist’s rudder is very efficient for sculling and can propel the boat with sweeping slow movements. Sailors sometimes scull back in order to offset the previous sculling and keep the boat in place at the starting line especially in light air. You can also observe forceful sculling that propels the boat forward in order to avoid being trapped between other boats at the start. Such an action breaks rule 42.2(d).

 

Permitted actions:

Gentle rudder movements through the centreline that do not propel the boat or prevent it from moving astern

Sculling, even forceful, when a boat is above close-hauled course and clearly changes direction to a close-hauled course – 42.3(d), SCULL 1

Repeatedly moving the helm to reduce the speed – 42.3(e)

 

Prohibited actions:

Sculling below a close-hauled course often in an effort to stop the boat immediately going back to head to wind or to duck in to leeward of another boat

Forceful sculling on both sides – SCULL 2

Crabbing, but only if the rudder movements are forceful enough to offset the steering

caused by backing a sail – SCULL 3

Gathering evidence:

Are the tiller movements forceful?

Are they propelling the boat forward or preventing it from moving astern?

Is the boat above a close-hauled course and clearly changing direction towards a

close-hauled course?

Is the sculling offsetting previous sculling?

When backing a sail, is the sculling preventing the boat from changing course?

 

2. Rocking

Rocking can be mostly seen just after the start, especially in light air, when a sailor tries to sail out from the other boats’ shadow by standing in the boat and repeatedly heeling it to leeward and back to windward.

Permitted actions:

• One roll that does not have an effect of one stroke of a paddle.

Prohibited actions:

• One roll propelling the boat with the effect of one stroke of a paddle - BASIC 4

• Repeated rolling of the boat - 42.2(b)(1)

Gathering evidence:

Is the competitor causing the boat to roll?

Does a single roll have an effect of one stroke of a paddle?

Is the rolling repeated (more than once)?

UPWIND

1. Torquing

In Optimist class you see a lot of body movements affecting the sail as the boat is small and the bow is of a flat and irregular shape. When judging this, it is important to connect the sailor’s body movement with the flick and be sure that the flick is not caused by the wave pattern.

Permitted actions:

• Torquing to change the fore and aft trim of the boat in phase with the waves – OOCH 1

Prohibited actions:

Excessive torquing causing the leach to flick – PUMP 6

Torquing on flat water – OOCH 2

When bailing out the water, making one strong body pump with the effect of one stroke of a paddle – BASIC 4 or repeatedly rolling the boat by in and out body movements – 42.2(b)(1) BAILING OUT THE WATER CANNOT BE A JUSTIFICATION FOR BREAKING THE BASIC RULE.

Gathering evidence:

Are there waves?

Is the sailor’s body movement in phase with the waves?

Is the sailor’s body movement causing the leach to flick?

Can you connect sailor’s body movements with the flicks?

Are the flicks repeated?

May the flicks on the leach be caused by the waves?

Does one body pump have an effect of one stroke of a paddle?

How does it appear compared to the other boats?

 

2. Sculling

Sculling on the upwind leg usually occurs nearby the weather mark either when the sailor who tacked below the layline tries to reach a mark or after touching the mark in order to get clear of it. The same principles for sculling as at the starts apply with the exception that a sailor can scull after colliding with a mark in order to get clear of it – 42.3(g).

 

ON THE REACH

Majority of infringements occur in medium and strong wind conditions and refer mainly to sheet or body pumping. This is best observed from aside and astern as it is then easy to connect flicks on the leach with competitor’s body movement.

1. Sheet Pumping

Permitted actions:

Trimming a sail in order to trim the boat in the prevailing conditions – PUMP 2

Pumping a sail once per wave or gust of wind to initiate surfing or planing but to qualify as surfing the boat must rapidly accelerate down the leeward side of the wave.

– 42.3(c)

Making an attempt to plane or surf when conditions are marginal, even if it is unsuccessful – PUMP 7

Prohibited actions:

Trimming a sail in order to fan it – PUMP 1

Pumping a sail when surfing or planing

2. Body pumping Prohibited actions:

• Body pumping causing repeated flicks on the leach – PUMP 6 Gathering evidence: See DOWNWIND section below.

 

DOWNWIND

1. Pumping

Permitted actions:

Trimming a sail in order to trim the boat in the prevailing conditions – PUMP 2

Pumping a sail once per wave or gust of wind to initiate surfing or planing but to qualify as surfing the boat must rapidly accelerate down the leeward side of the wave.

– 42.3(c)

Making an attempt to plane or surf when conditions are marginal, even if it is

unsuccessful – PUMP 7

Prohibited actions:

Body pumping causing repeated flicks on the leach – PUMP 6

Trimming a sail in order to fan it – PUMP 1

Making one pump that initiates planing or surfing and before the boat reaches

another wave making a second pull on a sail. It is best observed from aside as it is then easy to see that the second pump is made in between the waves and does not initiate planing or surfing.

Pumping a sail when surfing or planing

Gathering evidence:

Are there surfing or planing conditions?

Does one pump per wave or gust of wind initiate surfing or planing?

Is the boat pumping while surfing or planing?

Could the trim and release be a response to wind shifts, gusts or waves?

Is the repeated trim and release fanning the sail?

Can you connect the flicking leach with body movements?

 

2. Rocking

Permitted actions:

Heeling the body to leeward to facilitate heading up and heeling the body to windward to facilitate bearing away, provided it is linked to wave patterns – ROCK 6

Restoring proper trim of the boat and adopting static crew position when the boat’s stability is reduced – ROCK 1 and ROCK 4

Prohibited actions:

Repeated rolling of the boat that is not linked to wave patterns – ROCK 7

Rolling the boat connected with the change of course when conditions make it

unnecessary to roll the boat to facilitate steering e.g. lack of waves

Single body movement followed by repeated rolling – ROCK 5

In light air, inducing rolling by rhythmic movements of the upper part of the body when

sitting on the windward side of the boat with the centreboard out of the water, one

hand holding to it and the boat heeled to windward – 42.2(b)(1)

In light air and small waves, inducing rolling by steering, mostly in an effort to use the

waves and increase the boat’s speed – 42.2(b)(3)

When bailing out the water, inducing repeated rolling by in an out body movements.

BAILING OUT THE WATER CANNOT BE A JUSTIFICATION FOR REPEATED ROLLING OF THE BOAT.

Gathering evidence:

Is the competitor causing the boat to roll?

Is the rolling helping the steering of the boat?

Are there conditions for rolling the boat to facilitate steering?

Is the amount of rolling consistent with the amount the boat turns?

Is it linked to the wave patterns?

TIPS

Ask questions!

If you are not sure about a technique, ask in writing for a clarification so that other sailors can also benefit from the answer.

If you get a yellow flag penalty, ask the judges for an explanation of what you can and can’t do.

Remember, the more important the event, the higher the ratio of judges to sailors, so your sailing technique will be under scrutiny when it really matters.

In case of any further questions please contact: Sofia Truchanowicz zofijka@hot.pl

THIS DOCUMENT RANKS ONLY AS GUIDANCE. THE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS ARE ISAF INTERPRETATIONS.